Answer :

‘Common but differentiated responsibility’ is a principle which was given in the Rio Summit 1992.


There was a difference in approach in the solutions regarding environmental conservation between the northern and the southern countries. The northern countries want everybody to be held equally responsible for environmental conservation while the southern countries that are still developing feel that much of the ecological degradation is because of the industrialisation carried out by the developed countries. If they’ve caused more degradation, they must take more responsibility for conservation of ecology. Moreover, southern countries are still developing and therefore have some special needs. These special needs of the developing countries must be taken into account in the development, application and interpretation of rules of international environmental law.


The idea could be implemented by-


• Agenda 21, a list of developmental practices, was recommended in the Earth Summit which produced conventions climate change, biodiversity and forestry.


• An international agreement known as the Kyoto Protocol was formed which set targets for the industrialised countries to cut their green house gas emissions that give effect to global warming.


• The nations participating in the summit reached to a common consensus regarding ‘sustainable development’ i.e. combining economical growth with ecological responsibility.


• The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 also provided that the parties should act to protect the environment on the basis of ‘Common but differentiated responsibility’.


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