Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium principle states that the relative frequency of alleles (alternative forms of the same gene) in the population remains constant from generation to generation in a population of sexually reproducing organisms.
The change in frequency of alleles in a population indicates disturbance in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium which causes evolution.
There are five factors which affect the genetic equilibrium and induce the variability in the population. These are genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, genetic recombination, natural selection.
Genetic drift is the random change in the frequency of alleles occurring by chance fluctuations. Mutation is the sudden and permanent change in the DNA. Reshuffling of genes of chromosomes during sexual reproduction forms new genetic combination and comparatively better adapted individuals out of a heterogeneous population are favoured by the Nature over the less adapted individuals is the natural selection. These are the cause of disturbance in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
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