Calcination is one of the processes of metallurgy in which the metals are heated at high temperatures in the absence or limited supply of air to get rid of the volatile substances and to convert the metal to its oxide.
Carbonates, Bicarbonates and hydroxide ores generally undergo calcination.
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(a) Write the steps involved in the extraction of pure metals in the middle of the activity series from their carbonate ores.
(b) How is copper extracted from its sulphide ore? Explain the various steps supported by chemical equations. Draw labelled diagram for the electrolytic refining of copper.
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