Groundwater development in the states of Punjab, Haryana, and Tamil Nadu has been intense due to irrigated agriculture, this is because:
• Spatio-temporal variability in rainfall makes irrigation a necessary alternative for agriculture in the country.
• Irrigation makes multiple cropping possible.
• Irrigated lands have higher agricultural productivity than unirrigated land.
• HYV crops, introduced during the Green Revolution, required regular supply of moisture.
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