Answer :

(a) Inert-pair effect

As one moves down the group, the tendency of s-block electrons to participate in chemical bonding decreases. This effect is known as inert pair effect. In case of group of group 13 elements, the electronic configuration is ns2np1 and their group valency is + 3. However, on moving down the group, the + 1 oxidation state becomes more stable. This happens because of the poor shielding of the ns2 electrons by the d- and f- electrons. As a result of the poor shielding, the ns2 electrons are held tightly by the nucleus and so, they cannot participate in chemical bonding.

(b) Allotropy

Allotropy is the existence of an element in more than one form, having the same chemical properties but different physical properties. The various forms of an element are called allotropes. For example: carbon exists in three allotropic forms: diamond, graphite and fullerenes.

(c) Catenation

The atoms of some elements such as carbon can link with one another through strong covalent bonds to form long chains or branches. This property is known as catenation. It is most common in carbon and quite significant in Si and S.

Rate this question :

How useful is this solution?
We strive to provide quality solutions. Please rate us to serve you better.
Try our Mini CourseMaster Important Topics in 7 DaysLearn from IITians, NITians, Doctors & Academic Experts
Dedicated counsellor for each student
24X7 Doubt Resolution
Daily Report Card
Detailed Performance Evaluation
view all courses

What do you underNCERT - Chemistry Part-II

In some of the reNCERT - Chemistry Part-II

What are allotropNCERT - Chemistry Part-II

(a) Classify follNCERT - Chemistry Part-II