Answer :

Liberal Nationalism stood for many things- individual freedom, equality before the law, representative government & constitution as well as the inviolability of private property.

Liberal Nationalists in the economic sphere:

1. Liberalism stood for freedom of markets. They wanted to remove all restrictions of state on the movement of goods and capital.

2. Napoleon’s regime had created different currencies, weights, measures and customs duties for each state. Liberalists wanted a unified economic territory.

3. A customs union from Prussia that was joined by many German states removed all tariffs and reduced the currencies from thirty to two.

4. The economic nationalism and unification further contributed to the nationalist sentiments.

Explanation: Liberal nationalism emphasized individual control over too much government control. It was reflected in political, economic as well as social spheres.


Teachers and students organized resistance in different ways:

1. The number of Vietnamese teachers increased in the school so while they taught the syllabus, they modified and criticised it.

2. In Saigon Native Girls School, a Vietnamese girl refused to leave the first seat for a French student. The principal expelled her as well as the students who protested against it.

3. But as the protests kept on increasing, the government asked the school to take back the students out of fear.

4. In other regions, students fought against the colonial government’s attempt at preventing Vietnamese from getting white-collar jobs.

5. By 1920s, students started forming political parties like Party of Young Annan and printing national journals.

Explanation: Teachers and students resisted in many ways, both silently and explicitly. The feeling of discrimination and subjugation by a foreign rule was felt.

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