Answer :

Three major phases that have marked the changing nature of political parties in India are:

1. Single dominant party system


After independence, the Congress was the single most power political party in the country. It had government both the centre and most regional states for a long time.


2. Challenge to the Single dominant party system


In 1977, in the spirit of democracy, the non-Congress parties come together to challenge the single party dominance. Congress lost elections at the centre owing to the anti-decentralisation policies of Indira Gandhi followed during the emergency years (1975-77) and various regional parties took this opportunity to mark their foothold in regional politics.


3. The Coalition Government


After 1989 General Elections, no single party could achieve a defining major to form the government at centre. Hence, different parties came together to form coalition governments. Contrary to popular believes, the coalition system of government has been a successful practice in India. Owing the multiple stakeholders in the government, the decision making process has been gradual but it is important to note that various regional concerns have found a voice at national stage, thus strengthening the democracy.


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