Answer :

Mutation in the genes may lead to uncontrollable and rapid division of the cells forming a mass or tumour. This mass is known as cancer. A cancer cell is different from a normal cell as cancer cells are able to metastasize, that is move from one place to another through lymphatic system and the bloodstream, and are highly invasive.


Methods of cancer detection are:


1. Bone marrow biopsy:


Removal of a small piece of bone within the bone marrow is done to detect the cancer cells.


2. Endoscopic Assessment:


A long, thin lighted tube having X-ray is inserted inside the organ which is to be detected.


3. CT Scan:


CT scan or computed tomography is done which uses X-rays to detect any abnormalities like lumps, tumour within the internal body structures.


4. Monoclonal Antibodies:


These are used in detecting the antigens of the small molecules produced by the cancerous cells.


5. MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imagining is done using magnetic radiations and radio frequencies to detect any abnormality in the soft tissues.


6. Ultrasound:


In this test sound waves are used to produce images of the internal body organs and checking for any abnormality in them.


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