Q. 464.8( 19 Votes )

What are the major parts of the brain? Mention the functions of different parts.

Answer :

Brain has three major parts or regions, namely the fore-brain, mid-brain and hind-brain. The major parts of the brain and their functions are as follows:


1. Fore-brain – It is the main thinking part of the brain. It has three main parts- the olfactory lobes, the cerebrum and the diencephalon.


(a) The olfactory lobes – These are a pair of very small club shaped bodies which are fully covered by the cerebrum. They act as a center of smell.


(b) The cerebrum – It is the largest and most prominent part of the brain. It is divided into right and left cerebral hemisphere by a deep groove. It is the center of consciousness, thoughts, memory and analytical thinking. It also controls voluntary actions.


(c) Diencephalon – It mainly consists of pituitary gland, hypothalamus and thalamus. It posses control unit of thirst, hunger, temperature, sleep, etc.


2. Mid-brain – It acts as a coordinating unit between fore-brain and hind-brain. It also controls some involuntary actions.


2. Hind-brain – It has three main centers – Cerebellum, Pons and Medulla oblongata.


(a) Cerebellum- It is responsible for precision of voluntary actions and maintaining the posture and balance of the body.


(b) Pons – It is the center through which nerve impulses travels to and from the cerebellum, spinal cord and other parts of the brain. It also helps in respiration.


(c) Medulla oblongata – It is the lowermost part of the brain. It contains vital centres for controlling blood pressure, respiration, swallowing, sneezing, coughing, salivation and vomiting.


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