Despite the large latitudinal extent of the country, monsoon winds exert a binding influence on the climate of the country. Since Indian farmers depend heavily on rainfall for irrigation, monsoons ties our cropping seasons together. In an agrarian country, this unification has important socio-economic consequences. While there are similar seasonal cycles across the country, with marked regional variations:
• In Rajasthan, summer temperatures might rise to 55 degrees, while it would be less than minus 45 degrees in Ladakh. (variation due to relief and altitude)
• Diurnal range of temperature is much lower in Kerala than in Rajasthan. (variation due to different distances from the sea)
• While it snows in Himalayas, it rains in the rest of the country.
• Rainfall might be as high as 400cm in Meghalaya, while it is below 10cm in Jaisalmer.
• Rainfall also occurs at different times. Kerala receives rainfall in June, whereas Tamil Nadu receives more rainfall during winter months.
This shows the great diversity in the weather conditions of India across the year.
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