Q. 2 A3.6( 141 Votes )

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India's climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert. Monsoon winds, the geographical location of the country, winds blowing from the West and other relief features of the earth play a great role in directing the climate of India.

The contribution of various geographical factors affecting the climate:

(i) Monsoon winds: India's climate is controlled by monsoon winds. In summer, monsoons are onshore winds. These winds give most of the rainfall to the country. In winter the monsoon winds blow from land to sea as N.E. Monsoons. These are dry winds.

(ii) The extent of the country: India is a vast country. The northern part lies in the temperate region and experiences hot summers and cool winters. The southern part lies nearer the equator and has hot season throughout the year.

(iii) Location of the Himalayas: The Himalayas act as a climatic barrier. This mountain wall protects India from the cold winds of Central Asia in winter. The Himalayas check the on-shore. S.W. Monsoons and force these to give rainfall.

(iv) The Indian Ocean: India lies at the head of the Indian Ocean. S.W. Monsoons originate from this ocean in summer and give rainfall over most of the country. Cyclones also originate over this ocean.

(v) The western disturbances: The western disturbances (cyclones) originate from the Mediterranean Sea and enter India in winter. They are responsible rainfall in north-western parts of India in winter.

(vi) Distance from the sea: The coastal areas experience marine climate. Generally, these areas have an equable climate, but the interior regions experience an extreme or continental type of climate, e.g. north-west India.

(vii) Relief of the land: Relief influences the distribution of temperature and rainfall in India. Mountainous areas have low temperatures. The windward slopes such as the Western Ghats receive heavy rainfall while the leeward slopes (Deccan Plateau) lie in the rain-shadow and are dry.

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