Q. 45.0( 2 Votes )
What are the characteristics of Egyptian civilization?
Egyptian Civilization was based on the banks of the Nile river. It is one of the major world civilizations.
Main Features of Egyptian Civilization
a. Social Life:
The kings were called ‘Pharoh’ who were often autocratic. They were considered as representative of God. Often feudals, priests, middle-class businessmen, traders were included in the upper class. The lower class comprised of farmers and dases (slaves). Music, dance, acrobatics, animal fights gambling, etc. were means of entertainment. Ivory tables and chairs and precious curtains were parts of grandeur.
b. Economic Life:
They mainly practised agriculture and cattle rearing where Barley, onion, millet and cotton were grown prominently. It was called the granary of the ancient world as three crops were grown in a year. Animals such as Goats, sheep, pigs, dogs, donkeys, camels, etc. were reared. Trade was practised were skilled workers of metal, wood, glass, paper and cloth were present. They had trade relations with Ethiopia and Arabs. The economy was based upon the Barter system.
c. Religious life: Their chief gods were Ra (Sun), Orisis (River Nile), Sin (Moon). In the beginning, they believed in polytheistic (or worshipping multiple gods) but during the imperialistic period a Pharoh named ‘Akhnatan Pharos’ gave emphasis to one god concept (Ekeshwarism) and started worshipping ‘Sun’.
d. Science and Knowledge: People made calendar based on sun and stars and calculated the concept of 360 days in a year. They were also the proponents of the sundial. They developed their own script and manufactured paper using papyrus plants.
e. Architecture: People believed that the soul resides in the dead body after death, so they put special oil on a dead body that preserved the body for thousands of years. Grand tombs were built to honour the dead which was called pyramids. The dead body kept in pyramids was called ‘mummy’. Pyramid of Giza is the best example of ancient Egyptian architecture in the world. It is 755 feet wide and 481 feet in height. It is built with 23 lakh pieces of stones and weighed two and a half tonnes. It has a sculpture of ‘Narasimha’ called ‘sphinx’. These pyramids are proofs of advanced knowledge in mathematics and science, which survive even now.
The Egyptian Civilization is thus because of its unique features one of the oldest and most well-known civilizations.
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