Answer :

1. These are third generation vaccines.

2. They are made up small piece of circular DNA called Plasmids.

3. These plasmids are genetically engineered to produce specific proteins of a pathogen.

4. When these are injected into the body, the body reads the DNA and the host cell start synthesising pathogen proteins.

5. As these proteins are considered as foreign substance. The body starts an immune response.

6. Now, the body recognises the pathogen whenever it enters and initiates the response.


1. Bird Flu virus vaccine for humans.

2. West Nile virus vaccine for horses.


1. Their is no risk of infection.

2. They initiate both cell mediated and humoral immune response.

3. Initiate a long term immune response.

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