Q. 4

What are ‘flocs’, formed during secondary treatment of sewage?


Write any two places where methanogens can be found.

Answer :

Flocs are the masses of bacteria associated with fungal filaments to form mesh like structures.

During the secondary treatment of sewage, the primary effluent is passed into the large aeration tanks where it is continuously agitated mechanically and air is pumped into it. This leads to the vigorous growth of useful aerobic microbes into flocs.


Methanogens are found in cattle dung and in the rumen of cattle. They are also found in anaerobic sludge, biogas plants, marshy areas and flooded rice fields. 

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