Water is very ess
In water scarce conditions, both plants and animals have developed specific features which help them to adapt in such conditions.
• Plants –
i. Deep tap roots to absorb water from deep into the soil
ii. Waxy cuticles on leaf surfaces and stomata arranged in deep pits to reduce water loss by transpiration.
iii. Have a special photosynthetic pathway (CAM) that enables their stomata to remain closed during the day
iv. Desert plants like Opuntia, have leaves reduced to spines and the photosynthetic function is taken over by the flattened stems.
• Animals –
i. No sweating
ii. Body covered with scales
iii. deposition of fat in sub epidermal layer
iv. burrowing nature
v. thick skin
(a) Electrostatic precipitator can remove 99% particulate matter present in the exhaust from a thermal power plant. Failure of the electrostatic precipitator will lead to the release of exhaust filled with particulate matter into the air causing air pollution.
(b) Vehicular air pollution can be controlled by –
i. Use of CNG
ii. Use of catalytic converters
iii. Phasing out of old vehicles
iv. Use of low sulphur fuel
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