Answer :

The Indian National Congress was formed in 1885. Later a division happened in the organization due to the difference in opinions of two groups. The two groups were

a) Extremists

b) Moderates

INC was divided into two groups in the year 1907. In the Surat session of the Congress, this spilt was officially visible.

The reasons for the differences between extremists and moderates were:

• The period 1885-1905 Indian national congress (INC), was dominated by moderates.

• Surendranath Banerjee, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Pherozeshah Mehta etc. were moderates.

The moderates had the influenced of the “moderate”(modest) idea that the Britishers would agree with their demands as and when they confirm it.

• These Moderates believed in the request, prayers, meetings, leaflets, and pamphlets formal messages and delegations to present their demands to the British.

• But Moderates failed to achieve any notable goals. They only could expand the legislative council by the Indian Council Act of 1892.

• This created unhappiness among the members in INC.

• The partition of Bengal made the members restless, and it was one of the reasons for the rise of extremism in INC

• In 1907 the Indian National Congress meeting which was conducted in Pune witnessed many problems within the organization. The extremists wanted Lala Lajpat Rai or Bal Gangadhar Tilak as president. But moderates wanted Rash Behari Ghosh to be president.

• Therefore a decision was made by Gopal Krishna Gokhale to change the meeting place of INC from Pune to Surat. If Pune was the meeting place, then Bal Gangadhar Tilak would become President. This was the fear of moderates.

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