Answer :

The concept of Neo determinism introduced by Griffith Taylor states that there is neither a situation of absolute necessity (environmental determinism) nor is there a condition of absolute freedom (possibilism). This concept provides for a middle path i.e. a Madhyam Marg between the two ideas of environmental determinism and possibilism. He used different terms for this concept other than neo determinism like stop and go determinism. The concept can be analysed with a simple example from the day to day lives of people living in cities or the ones who have visited these cities. We know that the traffic in cities is regulated by traffic lights which have a symbolic representation. These representations are common to all cities which state that red light means to stop, amber light is used as a gap between the red and green lights to symbolise ‘to get set’ while green light means go. This concept shows that neither is there a situation of absolute necessity nor absolute freedom. Nature allows humans to make modifications but only within limits. These possibilities must be within the limits that do not cause harm to the environment and do not end up causing accidents to happen. Free run attempts undertaken by some developed countries have led to green house effect, ozone layer depletion, global warming, receding glaciers and land degradation. Therefore, this concept is an attempt to balance the ‘either’ ‘or’ dichotomy.


The concept of naturalisation of humans and humanisation of nature is brought forward when the physical environment for primitive societies becomes ‘Mother Nature’. This concept represents the inter-relationship of an economically primitive society with nature. They live in complete harmony with their surroundings. In their society, nature is considered to be a power, in many cases it is worshipped, revered and conserved. They are directly dependent on the nature for getting resources and their sustenance. These resources give humans a freedom to use it for the better and make developments in technology. Nature withholds many opportunities with it which is yet to be explored and utilised by humans.

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