The German naturalist and geographer Alexandar von Humboldt observed that within a region species richness increased with increasing explored are, but only up to a limit in fact, the relation between the species richness and area for wide variety of taxa turn out be a rectangular hyperbola.
On the logarithmic scale, the relationship is a straight line described by the equation.
Log S = Log C + Z Log A where
S = Species richness A = Area
Z = slope of the line
Y = Y- intercept
Ecologists have discovered that the vale of Z lies in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 regardless of the
taxanomic groups or the regions and this process is called species – relationship area.
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