Answer :

A promoter is a region of DNA where RNA polymerase binds to initiate transcription. It is present at the 5’ end of the transcription unit.

A terminator is a sequence of DNA that causes RNA polymerase to terminate transcription. It is present at the 3’ end of the transcription unit.

A transcription unit is the sequence between sites of initiation and termination by RNA polymerase; may include more than one gene.

Upstream identifies sequences in the opposite direction from expression; for example, the bacterial promoter is upstream of the transcription unit, the initiation codon is upstream of the coding region.

Downstream identifies sequences proceeding farther in the direction of expression; for example, the coding region is downstream of the initiation codon.

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