Answer :

Parthenocarpy is development of a fruit without prior fertilization. Hence the fruits are seedless.

Apomixis is development of a seeds without prior fertilization. It is observed in few flowering. Apomixis is a form of asexual reproduction that mimics sexual reproduction. Apomixis avoids the processes of meiosis and fertilization, leading to embryo development.

Vegetative propagation is type of asexual reproduction in a plant where new plant is formed with involvement of just one parent. The new plant is genetically identical to the parent.

Sexual reproduction – here new offspring is formed with involvement of two parents.

Therefore, the correct answer is option (b).

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