Q. 11

‘The Indian government is already participating in global efforts through a number of programmes related to environmental issues’. Explain.

Answer :

‘The Indian government is already participating in global efforts through a number of programmes related to environmental issues’. This statement is explained below:

● India signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol 1997.


● It was exempted from the requirement of the Kyoto Protocol because it's per capita emission of greenhouse gases during the industrialization period was not significant.


● At the G8 meeting in June 2005, India pointed out that the per capita emission of the developing countries is very small as compared to the developed countries.


● Regarding the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, India is of the view that since the developed countries are responsible for more emissions and the higher level of ecological degradation, they must be largely held accountable as compared to the developing countries who are still in their process of industrialization.


● India's international negotiating position depends on the principles of historical responsibility as mentioned in UNFCCC.


● The developed countries are responsible for most of the past and current greenhouse gases emission and emphasized that economic and social development is the first priority of the developing countries.


● In this regard, India feels that it is not fair to impose any restrictions on it when the country's rise in per capita carbon emission by 2030 is likely to be less than half the world average of 3.8 tonnes in 2000.


● India's emissions are expected to rise from 0.9 tonnes per capita in 2000 to 1.6 tonnes per capita in 2030.


● India has also introduced the number of programs for the protection of the environment.


● National auto fuel policy mandates clean fuel for vehicles.


● Energy conservation act of 2001 outlines the initiative to improve Energy Efficiency.


● The electricity act of 2003 encourages the use of renewable energy.


● It has also taken steps to increase its Import of natural gas and encourage the adoption of clean coal technology.


● It is making efforts to launch a National Mission on biodiesel using 11 million hectares of land to produce biodiesel.


● It has ratified the Paris climate agreement on 2nd October 2016.


● It has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world.


● A review of the implied implementation of the agreement at the Earth summit in Rio was undertaken by India in 1997.


● It was concluded that no significant progress has been made regarding the transfer of new and additional financial resources and environmentally Sound Technology on concessional terms to developing Nations.


● India felt that it was necessary that the developed countries take immediate measures to provide the developing countries with financial resources and clean technologies to help them to meet their existing commitments.


● India was also of the view that all the SAARC countries must adopt a common position on the global environmental issues to have a greater weight of the region's voice.


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