Answer :

Indian Civil Service in British Rule (1858-1947)

• The Indian Civil Service (ICS) in the 19th century, during the British rule it was officially known as Imperial Civil Service.

• The civil service was founded by the Warren Hasting and it was eventually reformed by the Charles Cornwallis.

• Cornwallis was the person who modernised the civil service. He introduced the two division in the civil service that is – covenanted and uncovenanted. In this covenanted were consisted the only British officials and uncovenanted was introduced to the entry of Indian into the service. But uncovenanted was the lower rank posts in the civil service posts.

• Government of India Act 1919

The Imperial Services headed by the Secretary of State for India was split into two—the All India Services and the Central Services.

All India Services and Central Services of Group A was designated as Central Superior services.

This Indian civil service helped to rule British India very efficiently. These service members helped to rule more than 300 million people in whole British India. They were appointed by the section XXXII of Government of India Act 1858, which was enacted by the Parliament of United Kingdom. These covenanted officials were from British with highly qualified education. This is why the Indian Civil Service was called the backbone of the British Rule of India.

After the partition of India and Pakistan (Modern Era 1947- till date)

• It was Sardar Valabai Patel gave importance to the civil service and he strengthens the civil service to maintain the integrity and national unity of India.

• Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) was established in the constitution of India. It is the central recruiting agency of India. It is the independent constitutional body which is directly created by the constitution.

• Articles 315-323 in Part XIV of constitution contain an elaborate provision regarding the composition, appointment and removal of members in the UPSC.

The constitution under Article 312 gives authority to the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of Parliament) to set up new branches of the All India Services with a two-thirds majority vote. The Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, and Indian Forest Service have been established under this constitutional provision.

This is the growth of Indian civil service from the Imperial service to the current form of Indian Administrative Service. The values of integrity, impartiality, and merit remain the guiding principles of the Indian civil services.

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