Answer :

The following abbreviations that are used in the context of excretory functions stand for:

a) ANF: Atrial Natriuretic Factor


Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a hormone that acts on the kidney to increase the sodium excretion and glomerular filtration rate and it also antagonizes the renal vasoconstriction. In addition to that renin secretion is also inhibited.


b) ADH: Anti-Diuretic Hormone:


Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin is released from the neurohypophysis. ADH facilitates water reabsorption from latter parts of the tubule thus preventing diuresis.



Diuresis is the excessive urine production.


c) GFR: Glomerular Filtration Rate:


The rate of blood flow through the kidneys is known as the glomerular filtration rate, or GFR (The glomerulus or glomeruli are microscopic bundles of blood vessels present inside the nephrons).



d) DCT: Distal Convoluted Tubule


It is a portion of the functional unit of kidney called nephron which lies between the loop of Henle and the collecting tubule. Once the filtrate passes through the ascending limb of Henle, it then enters the distal convoluted tubule (duct of the renal tubule present in the cortex of kidney) that selectively reabsorbs minerals like calcium, sodium, and chloride thus regulating the pH of urine by secreting H+ ions and absorbing bicarbonate ions.


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