Answer :

The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789.

1. The French Revolution clearly asserted that the people constitute the nation and shape the destiny of the country.

2. The French nationalists tried to instil a sense of unity and oneness among the citizens.

3. They inculcated the ideas of the fatherland which was called la patrie in French and the citizen which was called le citoyen.

4. A new tricolour flag replaced the royal standard.

5. The French Revolution paved the way for the transfer of sovereignty from the Monarchy to a body of French Citizens.

6. French was adopted as a common language.

7. Uniform system of weights and measures was adopted thereby abolishing internal customs duties.

8. Napoleonic Code which was called The Civil Code of 1804 was introduced.

9. This code ensured the simplification of administrative divisions, the introduction of common currency, improvement in transport and communication etc.,

Thus, the French Revolution was a success.


Huynh Phu So was a Buddhist scholar from Mekong Delta area.

1. He started the Hoa Hao Movement in the year 1939.

2. This movement was a popular anti-French uprising.

3. He helped the poor and opposed the sale of child brides.

4. He was against the use of alcohol and opium.

5. He performed miracles as well.

6. The French who were against Huynh Phu So tried to suppress the movement.

7. They called Phu So as Mad Bonze and sent him to an asylum.

8. They finally sent him on exile to Laos.

9. Many of his followers were sent to concentration camps.

Thus, the famous Hoa Hao movement was suppressed by the French.

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