Q. 64.0( 3 Votes )

The figure given

Answer :

(a) ‘a’ is Antigen binding site, and ‘b’ is Light chain.

Structure of an antibody molecule is shown here. The region of antibody where the antigen binds is the antigen binding site. It has 4 peptide chains; two small called light chain and two longer called heavy chains.

(b) Antibodies are proteins produced by B- lymphocyte cells in response to pathogens. B – Lymphocytes are a special type of cells seen in blood. T – lymphocytes in the blood helps b – lymphocytes to produce antibodies.


About 25% of the human population is suffering from hunger and malnutrition. An alternative method which provides proteins for animals and human nutrition is SINGLE CELL PROTEIN (SCP).

• Microbes are being grown on a large industrial scale which serves as a good source of protein. Microbes like spirulina can easily be grown in waste water of potato processing plants, straw, molasses, animal manure, and even sewage hence producing a large quantity of food rich in protein, vitamins, carbohydrate, fat etc. This utilization also helps in reducing environmental pollution.

• Methylophilus methylotrophus can produce 25 tonnes of protein due to its high rate of biomass production and growth.

• Mushrooms are eaten by a large part of people. It shows that microbes are also acceptable as food.

BIOFORTIFICATION – The breeding of crops with higher levels of vitamins and minerals, or higher protein and healthier fats - is the most practical means to improve public health.

TISSUE CULTURE - A method adopted to keep pace with demand and to provide sufficiently fast and efficient systems of crop improvement. It involves the regeneration of the whole plant from ex-plant parts. This is grown in a test tube, under sterile conditions in a special nutrient medium. Thus obtaining, a large number of plants in a very short duration.

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