The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe. 1. As an enormous increase in population was witnessed all over Europe, there were more seekers of job than employment. Population from rural areas often migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums. 2. Small producers in towns were faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England, where industrialization was more advanced. For example-This was the situation in case of textile production which was mainly carried out in homes or small workshops and was only partly mechanised. 3. In the regions of Europe, where the aristocracy enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations. The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country. For example- In 1848, food shortages and widespread unemployment had brought the population of Paris out on the roads. 4. In 1845, weavers in Silesia had revolted against contractors who supplied them raw material and gave them orders for finished textiles but drastically reduced their payments.
NOTE – The Conservative rulers established political regimes after the defeat of Napoleon. ‘Revolution’ and growth of the feelings of Nationalism helped in uniting the people in various European States. People at the same time also faced a lot of problems in their day-to-day lives.
1. The Ho Chi Minh Trail was an immense network of footpaths and roads, which was used to transport men and material from the North to South Vietnam.
2. The trail was improved from the late 1950s, and from 1967 about 20,000 North Vietnamese troops came south each month on this trail. The trail also has support bases and hospitals along the way. The supplies were mostly carried by porters who were women, who would carry about 25 kilos on their backs or about 70 kilos on their bicycles.
3. Most part of the trail was outside Vietnam (in neighbouring Laos and Cambodia) with branch lines extending into South Vietnam. The U.S regularly bombed this trail, in an attempt to disrupt the supplies, but these efforts eventually failed every time because they were rebuilt very quickly.
NOTE – The Ho chi Minh Trail symbolized the way Vietnamese used their limited resources to a great advantage. Although, the U.S used to regularly bomb the trail so that the important passage could be shut down, but its attempts failed every single time because of the fast and smooth pace with which it was built again and again.
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