Q. 185.0( 1 Vote )

Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions :

The Congress evolved from its origins in 1885 as a pressure group for the newly educated, professionals and commercial classes to a mass movement in the twentieth century. This laid the basis for its eventual transformation into a mass political party and its subsequent domination of the political system. Thus the Congress began as a party dominated by the English speaking, upper caste, upper middle class, and urban elite. But with every Civil Disobedience Movement, it launched, its social base widened.

(a) What is meant by a pressure group?

(b) Explain the reason for the Congress to be transformed into a rainbow-like social coalition by the time of Independence.

(c) What made the Congress into a mass political party in the twentieth century?

Answer :

(a) Pressure Group is a term used for people or a group of people who work for a common cause. It is an organization where people actively participate and promote the cause, unlike political parties they do not participate in election proceedings.

(b) Congress started as a pressure group that represented the English speaking upper class, urban middle class, and elite class etc. But later as movements like Civil disobedience movement and Noncooperation movement launched, it attracted more rural people, students, workers, women towards itself.


The party started to represent all class people as a leader, this widened social base and by the time of independence, Congress transformed into a rainbow-like the social coalition.


(c) Congress started as a pressure group during the British regime and participated extensively in the freedom struggle of the nation. Gandhi Ji was also associated with the party, this led to the popularity of the Congress. The party professed unity, equality and propagated demands of each class of the society.


After Independence Congress party came into power and Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister. Later when the coalition party system evolved and many state parties participated in the election, even then Congress led by Indira Gandhi emerged victories.


These led to the emergence of Congress as a mass political party.


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