After independence, the country was divided into different states on linguistic grounds because of the struggles by the people for linguistic re-ordering. Andhra Pradesh was the first state to be separated and formed on linguistic grounds. Maharashtra and Punjab were the other important states that were formed on linguistic grounds. With the passage of time, it was felt that the accommodation of regional demands and the formation of linguistic states were also seen as more democratic. The important arguments that can be given to support this are:
• The accommodation of regional demands and the formation of linguistic states permitted to maintain the linguistic and cultural diversity of the country without upsetting the unity of the nation.
• The acceptance of all the regional and linguistic demands and privileges of all regions will eliminate the risk of conflicts and separation. Also, the acceptance of regional demands will foster a stronger centre-state relationship.
• The linguistic reorganisation of states has transformed politics and leadership in grass root. The opportunity to participate in politics and gain power has become broader and not restricted to the small group of English speaking elite.
• The linguistic reorganisation has given a uniform and concrete base to the representation of boundaries of states. It did not result in the fragmentation of the country. Rather, it reinforced the national unity.
• The linguistic reorganisation states emphasised the recognition of the diversity prevailing in the country.
After independence, India had to choose a pattern of development for the country. Such decisions should consider the interests of various social groups and also the present generation and future generations. The decisions taken by the people’s representatives should be approved by the people. These discussions triggered both agreements and disagreements among the people.
The different areas of agreement with about the model of economic development to be adopted in India after independence are:
• Everyone agreed that the development of the country should ensure economic growth and progress. It should also fulfil social and economic justice. The benefits of development should be reaped by the entire population.
• It was decided that policies for economic development cannot be left to businessmen, industrialists and farmers themselves. The government should actively participate in the process.
But many raised various disagreements about the model of economic development to be adopted in India after independence. Some major areas of disagreements are:
• The extent and nature of the role that the government must play in ensuring growth with justice.
• Whether the planning and implementation of the plans be concentrated with a centralised institution for the entire country.
• The role of the government in the establishment and development of basic and key industries and business.
• The priority that has to be given to justice and fairness if it diverged from the requirements of economic growth.
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