Q. 135.0( 1 Vote )

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Answer :

(i) The quality of water is very good in the mountains as the major river systems of the country originates in the mountains. The water resources would be less exploited in the mountain regions. But when the rivers enter the plains and deltas, the excessive use of water for agricultural purposes has resulted in the depletion of the water table. The overuse of fertilisers and pesticides has resulted in the pollution of the major river systems. Thus the quality of water is good in the mountains and poor in the plains.


(ii) The water resources are being exploited at an increasing rate across the country. When the rivers enter the plains and deltas, the excessive use of water for agricultural purposes has resulted in the depletion of the water table. The overuse of fertilisers and pesticides has resulted in the pollution of the major river systems. Man legal measures have been taken by the government to control water pollution in the country. It includes the enactment of various acts and laws including the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974, the Environment Protection Act 1986 and the Water Cess Act, 1977. The individuals can also contribute to controlling water pollution. Some important measures that can be taken are:


• Recycle and reuse: Lesser quality water can be reused and recycled for other uses. The water after bathing and washing can be used for gardening. This would conserve the better quality of water for drinking and other purposes. It can also be expanded to industrial areas. The water of lesser quality can be used in industries for cooling and fire fighting. This will help in the conservation of freshwater resources.


• Watershed management: It focuses on the replenishment and the efficient utilisation of groundwater resources. It involves the prevention of runoff and storage and recharge of groundwater through the participation of the society. Haryali, Neeru-Meeru and Arvary Pani Sansad are some schemes of watershed management.


• Rainwater harvesting: Rainwater harvesting is the method to collect and store rainwater for various uses. It is also used to recharge groundwater aquifers. It has been in practice for a long time using different methods. Recharging the groundwater through ponds, lakes and canals and building harvesting plants in homes are some of them.


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