Answer :

In India, a certain number of political positions are held for specific groups of the population, including Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes, Anglo-Indians and Women. They are called reserved constituencies in both Parliamentary and State Assembly elections. The reservations are provided in

• Parliament of India,

• State Assemblies,

• Municipalities

• Village Panchayaths

The election of SC and ST candidates is by a Joint or mixed voters, which includes all castes, even though the SC and ST may be in a minority in the constituency. This system was introduced by the Constitution of India in 1950 (Article 330 of the Constitution of India) . allotment of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha are prepared on the basis of percentage of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the State concerned to that of the total population.

Some constituencies are kept reserved for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled tribes because:

1. Reservation was supposed to be in place for the first 10 years,(1950-1960) to ensure participation in politics by these groups

2. It ensured the participation of weak and needy scheduled castes/tribes

3. It also assured special protection for the minority.

4. The marginalized voice of the minority could reach the respective legislative authorities through this.

At present, out of 543 constituencies represented in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of India's parliament, 85 (15.47%) are reserved for SC and 48 (8.66%) are reserved for ST.

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