Answer :


1. Found mostly on silty clay or moist soil.

2. Marchantia show differentiation in two layers upper assimilatory region and

lower storage.

3. Thallus features has tiny cup like structures called gemma cups used for asexual reproduction.

4. Antheridia and archegonia are born on special stalks antheridiophores and archegoniophores. These are separate thalli therefore plant is dioecious.

5. Asexual reproduction occurs by gemmae discoid clumps of cells.


1. Plant is small erect, small & branched.

2. Differentiated into rhizoids, axis, leaves (simple ,small, spirally arranged)

3. Asexual method takes place to give rise to primary protonema, secondary protonema.

4. It consists of multicellular colourless branched rhizoids.


1. Fern belong to pteridophytes therefore they have vascular tissues well developed roots, stem, leaves.

2. Fern stem is often referred to as rhizomes.

3. Green, photosynthetic part of plant is technically megaphylly.

4. Fern species can be found many habitats as remote mountains, dry dessert Some species are lycopodium, selaginella, equisetum.

5. Fern are used as ornamentals, food etc.


1. A green-colored algae commonly found in stagnant freshwater bodies is known as spirogyra. Mainly, spirogyra is slimy and has filament to touch in which the filaments are present in the cylindrical cells placed one above the Also there is a single large vacuole in each cell.

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