Answer :

The Russian Revolution brought about many social changes in the country. These changes are mentioned below :

1. USSR under the leadership of Stalin tried to end small-scale production by forcing all small and large farmers to surrender their lands and join collective farms.

2. In this system, all the land, machinery, and raw material were pooled. The farmers worked together and distributed the produce among members. The main idea was to shift from small-scale farming to large-scale farming to use new techniques extensively on a large scale.

3. Many farmers resisted this, leading to imprisonment and even death. This also led to widescale starvation and famine.

4. All industries were owned by the state which did not allow the free market and sold the industrial products to the consumers directly.

5. A proper schooling system was developed. Arrangements were also made for factory workers to enter universities. Creches were set up for children of working women in factories.

6. USSR achieved full employment and improved the standard of living of its citizens.

7. Universalization of literacy and primary education was also achieved.

The challenges faced by Russia are mentioned below :

1. In 1917, Russia and Germany were at war.

2. The economy had deteriorated.

3. The British, French and US refused to recognize their government

4. The people widely resisted some of this changes.

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