Answer :

The Reformers: From the early nineteenth century there were intense debates around religious issues. Different groups confronted the changes happening within colonial society in different ways, and offered a variety of new interpretations of the beliefs of different religions. Some criticized existing practices and campaigned for reform, while others countered the arguments of reformers. These debates were carried out in public and in print. Wider public can participate in public discussion and express their views. New ideas emerged through clashes of opinions. Debates over religious reform took place, which were opposed by the Hindu and Muslim orthodoxy. They always discouraged people from reading printed materials.


Ram Mohan Roy started publishing a weekly news paper Sambad Kaumudi in 1821, Hindu orthodoxy commissioned and the Samachar chandrika opposed his opinions.


The deoband Seminary, founded in 1867, published thousands of fatwas telling muslims readers how to conduct themselves in their everyday lives, and explaining the meaning of Islamic doctrines


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