Answer :

A. The act of 73rd amendment it became mandatory to hold election after the term of every five years. If the State government dissolves the Panchayats before the end of its five years term, fresh elections must be held within six months period. This fear of replacement makes the representative accountable to the people.

B. After the 73rd Amendment act, the dominant caste and feudal landlords dominance on the local bodies came to an end. In the year 1993, reservations for women, Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes were made essential. The women have been given 1/3 reservation in local bodies like that of Villages Panchayat etc. Seats have also been reserved for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in proportion of their population. The dominant caste and feudal landlords who had their authority and control on the villages do not wish to give up their power which leads to conflict and tension in the village.

C. It is true that rural illiteracy is very high and illiterate people cannot take decisions about the development of the village. Education including primary and secondary education is the subjects included in the jurisdiction of Panchayati Raj institutions are listed in the Eleventh Schedule of the Constitution. There are 29 subjects inserted in this Schedule in 1992 by the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act. It is the responsibility of State government to apply these provisions into action.

D. Village Panchayats need resources and powers to make plans for the village development. The Panchayats have been given powers to levy, collect and appropriate such taxes, duties, tolls and fees as in agreement with the provisions made by the State governments. Establishment of state finance commission review the finances of Panchayats after every five years and to make recommendation of grants to be given to the Panchayats by the State Governments.

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