Answer :

(i) Two of the present-day environmental concerns are as follows –

• Ozone hole or the steady decline of ozone in the Earth’s stratosphere possesses a high risk to the environment and human health.

• The increase in coastal pollution due to land based activities.

(ii) Two principles that can be adopted to check environmental degradation are –

• Governments should focus on practices centred around afforestation which will not only increase tree cover in a nation but can combat a variety of environmental degradation factors like global warming, soil erosion etc.

• While industrialisation is important for the economic development of a country, emphasis should be put on development of eco-friendly industries. Scientific methods should be applied to neutralize the effect of industrial wastes on the environment.

(iii) Two political consequences of environmental issues are as follows –

• Since the 1960s, international conferences dealing with environmental concerns have been held by international organizations such as to United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to help countries exchange ideas and create policies to combat the consequences of environmental degradation.

• An Earth Summit held in Rio Di Janeiro in Brazil in 1992 saw the creation of Agenda 21 which dealt with recommended practices and conventions with respect to climate change, biodiversity, forestry etc.


(i) The full form of UNFCCC is - ‘United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’.

(ii) As per the UNFCCC, the economic and the social development are the first and overriding priorities of the developing countries.

(iii) The developing countries want transfer of financial resources and eco-friendly technology on concessional terms from developed countries in order to meet the existing commitments that the developing countries have under UNFCCC.

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