1.1 (a) (iii) grains of hardened corn
It is given in para 1 that “the discovery of a few stone tools or grains of hardened corn may reveal even more about early people”
(b) (i) artefacts, features and ecofacts
It is given in para 4 that the three basic kinds of archaeological evidence are artefacts, features and Eco facts.
(c) (ii) archaeological evidence is found
Para 4 states that “Any place where archaeological evidence is found is called an archaeological site”.
(d) (ii) study of humanity and human culture
Para 2 states that In America, archaeology is considered a branch of anthropology, the scientific study of humanity and human culture.
(e) (iv) weather and climate
(a) Archaeologists research and study about the lives of the early men through an analysis of the objects they left behind, which might include ruins, buildings, stonework, pottery, tools and bones. They make exciting discoveries and extract information regarding the history and culture of people from the past, as well about heritages and places of value.
(b) Archaeological research is what is used to identify and learn about the age-old societies and civilizations that were in existence even before they could be formally recorded in the form of written documents, dating back even by 5000 years when writing wasn’t invented. Besides, it adds to the knowledge we have of known societies and civilizations.
(c) European archaeologists consider their subject as being in close parallelism with history. Although the subjects differ when it comes to content, the European archaeologists consider their work to be in close coordination with the latter. While history involves the study of lives of people as provided by written documents, archaeology is concerned with information on how, why and when cultures developed.
(d) Archaeologists try to put any kind of evidence that helps them in establishing how people lived in the past. These evidences could range from the ruins of an ancient city to even pieces of stone flakes left behind by men who used larger chunks to create stone tools back then.
(e) Archaeologists use different techniques and methods to discover archaeological sites, which vary greatly in terms of size and location. Some are above the ground while some are under it, some are large enough to be spotted easily, while some are not. The methods employed are either scientific or traditional in nature. Foot survey is a traditional method of discovering archaeological sites by walking in preset directions at measured distances while looking for evidences. Aerial photography is used to determine evidences that cannot be reached on foot.
(f) In archaeology, scientists study the layers of rocks and soil which contain any kind of evidences in the form of archaeological objects to understand the conditions of existence in that time. These deposits are often found in multiple levels called strata. The archaeological study of these strata is called stratigraphy.
(a) Archaeologists find out how people lived in the past by studying the objects they have left back behind them. These objects could include buildings, artwork, pottery, stone and other objects found in ruins or at times safely preserved. These objects lend the archaeologists with valuable information on humans and their cultures.
(b) Archaeology is different from history as the latter deals with research based on written documents from the past that have been retrieved by some means, while archaeology deals with the study and analysis of objects that often date back to the times when writing wasn’t even invented. Hence, archaeology does not have any literary evidences to fall back upon and depends on objects and ruins for study and findings.
(c) Features are objects that are useful archaeological evidences. They consist mainly of houses, irrigation canals, tombs and other structures that were built by people in the past. The chief difference between an artefact and a feature is that the former can be removed from its original location without disturbing its surroundings, whereas the latter cannot.
(d) To understand the behaviour of the people from a particular place, archaeologists correlate the information they can extract from the artefacts, features and ecofacts that they are able to retrieve from an archaeological site. This gives them an insight into the habits, culture and beliefs of the people. For example, excavation of animal bones and dried corn could reveal hunting and gathering as the lifestyle.
It means carry out a systematic or formal inquiry to discover and examine the facts.
It means in exact terms or without vagueness.
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