Answer :

1.1 (a) (i) animals and man have similar interests.

Until the 1960’s it was believed that one of the differences between the animals and humans was the ability to make and use tools. But even chimps make their own tools like fishing rods and use them which is an indication that man and animals have similar interests at large.


(b) (ii) they use their brains to find solutions to problems.


Chimps were intelligent enough to use their brains to find solutions to problems just like humans do which blew the ego of humans. They pluck and trimmed stems of grass to invite termites to climb on it so they could be easily eaten. They also made their own fishing rod and went for fishing termites.


(c) (iv) the leaves can keep the rain off their bodies.


Orangutans as well as Chimpanzees have been observed using big leaves during downpours to keep the rain off their bodies. This gives another example of how animals use their brains to seek solutions to their problems and create their own tools.


(d) (ii) it is hungry and looking for food.


Though animals didn’t discover fire themselves but the black kite may spread a wildfire by dropping burning twigs so that they could see more fleeing insects and rodents and make them their food.


(e) (i) they want to be free.


Big male elephants would throw logs at electric fences so that there would be short-circuit that would destroy everything and they would be free.


1.2 (a) Animals are considered as intelligent as humans because they are equally capable of using available objects to satisfy their wants. They can make and use tools just like human which removes the common point of difference and also blows away human ego. They do not require sophisticated objects to find solutions to problems and use their brains to do the same.


(b) Chimps have made strategies to make their work easier and solve all their problems. They use hard rock to bash open hard shells and fruits.


(c) Elephants make use of chewed up bark to plug smaller water holes to prevent the water from evaporating.


(d) An example from the famous Aesop’s fables proves that the crow is an intelligent bird. Crows have been known to drop pebbles in the pitcher of water so that the water level rises up to the point where the crow can reach and quench its thirst.


(e) A black kite spreads wildfire by dropping burning twigs in the un-burnt areas. They do this so that insects come out and they can be easily made targets as food.


(f) Chimps chew leaves and also used them like sponges to suck up water from the small holes to enable themselves to drink water.


1.3 (a) Until 1960’s humans had considered themselves to be different from animals in the sense that they couldn’t make or use tools. But the realisation that animals are also capable of making and using their own tools and finding solutions to their problems it blew man’s ego. This was justified as the chimpanzee plucked and trimmed stems of grass which he inserted into termite mounds so that it would climb it and make it easier for the chimpanzee to eat them. Chimpanzees also designed their own fishing rods which they used for fishing termites. Chimps had also made use of rocks to break open hard shells and fruits. The adolescent females among the chimpanzees would sharpen stick with their teeth to use them as spears. They would use these to throw them into hollows where bush-babies hid. Chimps had also used leaves as sponges to suck water from holes.


(b) The female gorilla’s picked up sticks and used it to measure the depth of water bodies that they wished to cross. They also used it as their walking sticks. This removes the common point of difference between man and animals according to which animals are considered incapable of making or using tools to solve their problems. The action of the female gorilla state that their mentality is also similar to humans. The only difference is that they do not require the level of sophisticated tools that humans want.


(c) Dolphins too have developed solutions to problems that might occur. They cover their long noses with sponges or shells to avoid any kind of injury under water. This is also done as an attempt to protect their snouts from sharp rocks and spiny creatures before combing the sea-beds for tit-bits.


(d) Humans have always used their superior intelligence and best brains to ruin the earth by contributing to air and water pollution. Their wonderful tools gassed up the air and poisoned the water with its harmful pollutants. The human race has piled enough weaponry to destroy them a million times. The tools might be solving problems temporarily but in the long run it is harmful for us.


1.4 (a) crude/old-fashioned (para 8) - primitive


The word similar in meaning to crude/ old-fashioned is ‘primitive’ which means something that is not modern.


(b) poison (para 9) – venom


The word similar in meaning to poison is ‘venom’ which means something toxic.


(c) wonderful (para 10) –miraculous


The word similar in meaning to wonderful is ‘miraculous’ which means something really pleasant and delightful.


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