Q. 24.3( 32 Votes )
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow.
1. Overpowering prey is a challenge for creatures that do not have limbs. Some species like Russell’s viper inject poison. Some others opt for an alternative non-chemical method-rat snakes, for instance, catch and push their prey against the ground, while pythons use their muscle power to crush their prey to death. But snake can’t be neatly divided into poisonous and non-poisonous categories.
2. Even species listed as non-poisonous aren’t completely free of poison. The common Sand Boa, for instance, produces secretion particularly poisonous to birds. So the species doesn’t take any chance – it crushes its prey and injects poison as an extra step.
3. Do vipers need poison powerful enough to kill hundreds of rats with just one drop? After all, they eat only one or two at a time.
4. While hunting animals try their worst to kill most efficiently, their prey use any trick to avoid becoming a meal, such as developing immunity to poison. For instance, Californian ground squirrels are resistant to poison. For instance, Californian grounds squirrels are resistant to Northern Pacific rattlesnake poison.
5. Competition with prey is not the only thing driving snakes to evolve more and more deadly poison. Snakes also struggle to avoid becoming prey themselves.
6. Some snake killers have partial immunity to poison Famously, mongooses are highly resistant to cobra poison, and with their speed and agility, kill snakes fearlessly. It would be the death of cobras as a species if they didn’t evolve a more deadly poison to stop mongooses.
7. Poison has another important role. It’s an extreme meat softener; specific enzymes break up the inside of the prey. Normally, a reptile depends on the sun’s warm rays to aid digestion.
8. But I wonder if we cannot use venom in our favour. In remote parts of India, local hospitality often involves leather- tough meat. I chew and chew until my jaws ache. If I spit it out or refuse, our hots would be offended, I swallow like a python stuffing a deer down its throat and hope I don’t choke. If only I had poison.
2.1 Read the question given below and answer any four in 30-40 words each.
(a) Russell viper and rat snake have different methods to attack prey. How?
(b) How does Sand Boa kill its prey?
(c) There is a constant tussle between the hunting animal and its prey? Why?
(d) What makes mongoose a snake predator?
(e) What difficulty does the writer face when he is entertained in the remote parts of India?
2.2 On the basis of your reading of the above passage fill in any two of the following blanks.
i. Overpowering ………………… is a challenge for creatures that do not have limbs.
a. a kiler b. humans c. a python d. prey
ii. Poison ………………… meat.
a. enhances taste of b. hardens
c. softens d. breaks down
2.3 Find word from the passage which mean the same as:
a. Another (para I)
b. Liquid substance released from glands (para 2)
c. Particular (para 7)
(a)Russell viper and rat snake have different methods to attack prey. The former preys by injecting poison whereas the latter uses a non-chemical method i.e. catches and pushes their prey against the ground.
(b) The Sand Boa produces secretions particularly poisonous to birds. It attacks by first crushing its prey and then as an extra step it also injects its poison into its prey. Though they are classified as non-poisonous but it is completely not true because it uses poison on its prey.
(c) There is a constant tussle between the hunting animal and its prey because while hunting animals try all their techniques to kill their prey efficiently and on the other hand their prey use tricks to avoid being caught they develop immunity to poison like the mongooses. Snakes become more and more poisonous for two major reasons i.e. to avoid becoming prey themselves and to compete with their prey.(d) Mongooses are highly resistant to cobra poison. Also, with their speed and agility, they kill snakes fearlessly.
(e) The writer faces difficulty when he is entertained in the remote parts of India and expresses the need to use venom if possible as it would make meat softer. While travelling in remote parts, the local hospitality often involves leather-tough meat. The writer struggles to chew it until his jaw starts aching. He was left with no choice but to chew because if he spit it out or refused to swallow the hosts would feel offended and while swallowing he felt like a python swallowing a deer down its throat.
2.2 (i) Overpowering (d) prey is a challenge for creatures that do not have limbs.
Among the creatures that do not have limbs, the only choices to overpower their prey include injecting poison, or catching its prey. While some species like python uses their muscle power to crush its prey.
(ii)Poison (c) softens meat.
Poison acts as an extreme meat softener. It breaks down enzymes inside the preys body and makes it easier for the snake to swallow it down.
a. ‘Alternative’ means an option which is same as another.
‘Secretions’ refer to gland secretions which are in liquid form.
‘Specific’ refers to something in particular.
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Read the passage given below.
(1) It is an indisputable fact that the world has gone too far with the innovation of new technologies such as mobile phones, the internet and so on, due to which people are able to tour the cosmos virtually sitting at one place using their smart devices or other technological gadgets. Though mobile internet access is oftentimes hurried and short, it can still provide common internet features like alerts, weather data, emails, search engines, instant messages, and game and music downloading.
(2) Due to the easy access of smart phones, communication has been very effective and instant. People are able to convey their message all around the globe to their loved ones without spending hefty sums of money. Adults are always fond of such gadgets and they always welcome and adopt such new technology readily. Further, young people have been able to broaden their minds and improve their skills by doing research on the Internet. For instance, they use smart phones to look up any new word they come across. As we know that most of the universities have online teaching provision and smart phones assist the students to complete their assignments on time.
(3) The mobile phone has been a lifesaver for a lot of people in case of an emergency. Likewise, use of smart phones can be of vital importance in preventing crimes in the society by providing information to the security forces in time.
(4) Nonetheless, for the young the use of mobile phone can be like an addiction and they can misuse it. Young people are also prone to getting involved in undesirable activities on the Internet. This might have adverse effect on their academic performance. Therefore, young people should always be monitored and made aware of its bad outcomes.
(5) Also a major contributor to its popularity is the availability of prepaid or pay as you go services from a phone shop or an online store. This allows subscribers to load text or airtime credits to their handsets by the use of their credit cards, debit cards or by buying a prepaid card from the network they subscribe to. This plan also doesn’t commit a particular customer to a contract. If prepaid card is not that appealing to you, then you can opt to subscribe using the pay by month plan.
2.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer any four of the following questions in 30-40 words each :
(i) How are smart phones helpful in communication ?
(ii) What are the benefits of mobile phones for the young generation ?
(iii) How can mobile phones be considered ‘lifesavers’ ?
(iv) Mention any two demerits of mobile phones.
(v) How is a prepaid card useful to mobile phone users ?
2.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer any four of the following :
(A) In para 1, synonym of ‘innovation’ is ________.
(i) production (ii) sincerity
(iii) invention (iv) prevention
(B) Mobile internet can provide access to :
(i) telegram (ii) emails
(iii) schools (iv) university
(C) Grown-ups should _________ the use of new technology by the young people.
(i) reject (ii) criticize
(iii) monitor (iv) accept
(D) Meaning of the word ‘adverse’ in para 4 is :
(i) positive (ii) negative
(iii) admirable (iv) unguided
(E) According to the passage, one can opt for __________ plan if prepaid plan doesn’t suit.
(i) yearly (ii) weekly
(iii) monthly (iv) dailyEnglish (Lang. & Lit) - Board Papers
Read the passage given below:
Everybody wants to succeed in life. For some, success means achieving whatever they desire or dream. For many it is the name, fame and social position. Whatever be the meaning of success, it is success which makes a man popular.
All great men have been successful. They are remembered for their great achievements. But it is certain that success comes to those who are sincere, hardworking, loyal and committed to their goals.
Success has been man’s greatest motivation. It is very important for all. Success has a great effect on life. It brings pleasure and pride. It gives a sense of fulfilment. It means all-around development. Everybody hopes to be successful in life. But success smiles on those who have a proper approach, planning, vision and stamina. A proper and timely application of all these things is bound to bear fruit. One cannot be successful without cultivating these certain basic things in life. It is very difficult to set out on a journey without knowing one’s goals and purposes. Clarity of the objective is a must to succeed in life. A focused approach with proper planning is certain to bring success. Indecision and insincerity are big obstacles on the path to success.
One should have the capability, capacity and resources to turn one’s dreams into reality. Mere desire cannot bring you success. The desire should be weighed against factors like capability and resources. This is the basic requirement of success. The next important thing is the eagerness, seriousness and the urge to be successful. It is the driving force which decides the success. It is the first step on the ladder of success.
One needs to pursue one’s goals with all one’s sincerity and passion. One should always be in high spirit. Lack of such spirit leads to an inferiority complex which is a big obstruction on the path to success. Time is also a deciding factor. Only the punctual and committed have succeeded in life. Lives of great men are examples of this. They had all these qualities in plenty which helped them rise to the peak of success.
Hard labour is one of the basic requirements of success. There is no substitute for hard labour. It alone can take one to the peak of success. Every success has a ratio of five percent inspiration and ninety-five percent perspiration. It is the patience, persistence and perseverance which play a decisive role in achieving success. Failures are the pillars of success as they are our stepping-stones and we must get up and start again and be motivated.
2.1. On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer any four of the following
questions in 30-40 words each :
(a) To whom does success come certainly ?
(b) What are the basic things in life we need to achieve success ?
(c) What did great men have in plenty to rise to the peak of success ? Give any two examples.
(d) What is the one basic requirement of success ?
(e) Explain : “Failures are pillars of success.”
2.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, fill in any two of the following blanks with appropriate words/phrase :
(a) _________ plays a decisive role in achieving success.
(b) Goals have to be pursued with _________ and _________.
(c) Ratio of success is _________ inspiration.
2.3 Find out the words from the passage that mean the same as the following : (any two)
(a) endurance (para 2)
(b) obstruction (para 4)
(c) motivation (para 5)English (Comm) - Board Papers
Read the passage given below :
Globalization is the way to open businesses, improve technological growth, economy, etc, at the international level for all countries. It is the way in which manufacturers and producers of the products or goods sell their products globally without any restriction. It provides huge profits to the businessmen as they get low cost labour in poor countries easily. It provides a big opportunity to the companies to deal with the worldwide market.
Globalization helps to consider the whole world as a single market. Traders are extending their areas of business by treating the world as a global village. Earlier till the 1990s, there was a restriction on importing certain products which were already manufactured in India like agricultural products, engineering goods, food items and toiletries. However, during the 1990s there was a pressure from the rich countries on the poor and developing countries to allow them to spread their businesses by opening their markets. In India the globalization and liberalization process was started in 1991.
After many years, globalization brought about a major revolution in the Indian market when multinational brands came to India and started delivering a wide range of quality products at cheap prices. Prices of good quality products came down because of the cutthroat competition in the market.
Globalization and liberalization of the businesses in India have flooded the market with quality foreign products but has affected the local Indian industries adversely to a great extent resulting in the job loss to poor and uneducated workers. Globalization
has been a bonanza for the consumers, however, a loss to the small-scale Indian producers. Globalization has had some very positive effects on the Indian consumer in all sectors of society. It has affected the Indian students and education sector to a great extent by making study books and a lot of information available over the internet. Collaboration of foreign universities with the Indian universities has brought about a huge change in the field of education.
Globalization of trade in the agricultural sector has brought varieties of quality seeds which have disease resistance property. However, it is not good for the poor Indian farmers because the seeds and agricultural technologies are costly. It has brought about a huge revolution in the employment sector by the spread of businesses like cottage, handloom, carpet, artisan carving, ceramic, jewellery, and glassware etc.
Attempt any eight of the following questions:
(a) What is globalization ?
(b) Write any two advantages of globalization.
(c) What was the pressure from the rich countries in the 1990’s ?
(d) What is the effect of multinational brands entering the Indian market ?
(e) How are the prices of quality products affected due to globalization ?
(f) How have the foreign products affected the local industry adversely ?
(g) What has been the impact of globalization on the Indian students ?
(h) Why has globalization had a negative effect on the poor Indian farmer ?
(i) How has the cottage industry benefited from globalization ?English (Comm) - Board Papers
Read the passage carefully:
1. One would imagine that at the very sight of the panther, deer, antelopes, and its other preys would just run for their lives. Nothing of the sort. They all stand their ground and make such a loud noise that the panther is left with no other choice except to leave quietly. I have seen a tiny chital baby standing in the middle of an opening in the forest, stamping its feet on the ground and shooing away a tiger. With the white of its erect tail showing, it kept us its shrill call until the tiger made itself scarce. No tiger in its senses would attempt to catch such an impertinent brat, just as you would not dream of catching an offending crow cawing away in your verandah.
2. While the panther sticks to cover and hugs the edge of the forest, the game animals, on the other hand, like to assemble right out in open vast grazing grounds. Open spaces which the panther carefully avoids, are what the game animals deliberately seek.
3. It is difficult to describe the pandemonium kicked up by various animals when they spot or suspect a panther around. The chital strikes a shrill note, the kakar emits a deafening bark and the sambar rings a bell. The peacock on its perch, the jungle fowl on the ground, and the moneky on treetops, all join in the chorus of condemnation of the panther. They curse the panther in their own inimitable language. The resulting confusion of sounds is so irritating to the sharp ears of the panther that it is left with no other option except to go away.
4. The panther has thus to deal with its ever alert and watchful associates who show no mercy and expect none. It is a fight between finesse and flight, between clever attack and skillful defense.
5. Contrary to the common belief, the panther never springs upon its prey. It stalks as close to its victim as it can manage, and then makes the final dash by rushing at it at a lightning speed.
2.1 Answer the following questions:
A. What strategy do animals like deer, antelopes, etc adopt to drive away the panther?
B. How do the panther and the game animals (deer, antelopes, etc) react to open spaces?
C. What effect does the loud noise made by birds and animals have on the panther?
D. How does the panther kill its prey?
2.2 Find the meanings of the words given below with the help of the options that follow:
A. shrill (Para 1)
B. deliberately (Para 2)
C. condemnation (Para 3)
D. associates (Para 4)
English (Comm) - Board Papers
Read the passage carefully:
I was born in the small but beautiful mountain village of Nakuri near Uttarkashi in Garhwal, with the gurgling, playful Bhagirathi river flowing nearby. My parents were a hard-working and extremely self-contained couple. Even though our family was poor, barely managing the essentials, my father taught us how to live and maintain dignity and self-respect – the most treasured family value till today. At the same time my parents also practiced the creed, “Kindness is the essence of all religion.” They were large-hearted, inviting village folk passing by to have tea at our home, and gave grain to the sadhus and pandits who came to the house. This characteristic has been ingrained in me so deeply that I am able to reach out to others and make a difference in their lives – whether it is in my home, in society or at the workplace.
I was the third child in the family – girl, boy, girl, girl and boy in that other – and quite a rebel. I developed a tendency to ask questions and was not satisfied with the customary way of life for a girl-child. When I found my elder brother, Bachchan, encouraging our youngest brother, Raju to take up mountaineering I thought, why not me? I found that my brother were always getting preferential treatment and all opportunities and options were open to them. This made me even more determined to not only do what the boys were doing, but to do it better.
The general thinking of mountain people was that mountaineering as a sport was not for them. They considered themselves to be born mountaineers as they had to go up and down mountain slopes for their daily livelihood and even for routine work. On the other hand, as a student, I would look curiously at foreign backpackers passing by my village and wonder where they were going. I would even invite them to my house and talk to them to learn more about their travels. The full significance of this came to me later when I started working. The foreigners took the trouble to come all the way to the Himalayas in order to educate themselves on social, cultural and scientific aspects of mountaineering, as well as to seek peace in nature’s gigantic scheme of things.
Answer the following questions:
A. What does the author tell us about the financial condition of her parents?
B. What is the most treasured value of the author’s family?
C. Give an example to show that the author’s parents were very hospitable.
D. What kind of girl was the author?
E. How do you know that the author’s parents discriminated between sons and daughters?
F. Why do the mountain people consider themselves to be born mountaineers?
G. Why would the author invite foreign mountaineers to her house?
H. Why were foreigners drawn to the Himalayas?
English (Comm) - Board Papers
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.
1. Peer Pressure is a phenomenon wherein we tend to get influenced by the lifestyle and the ways of thinking of our peers. Peer pressures can prove beneficial but it is most often observed to have negative effects.
2. The thought, behaviour and taste in fashion, music, television and other walks of life of the massage are often seen to have a deep impact on society. We tend to get influenced by the lifestyle of our peer group. The changing ways of life of our peers often force us to change our ways of looking at life and leading it. It’s a human tendency to do what the crowd does. Few have the courage to resist the peer pressure and be their own selves rather than being one among the lot. Peer pressure is bound to affect most of us both positively and negatively. The distinction between positive and negative peer pressure lies in a thoughtful analysis of the views of the masses. Following your peers blindly leaves a negative impact on your life while an analytical approach of looking at peer behaviour can help you act positively. Peer pressure is not always can bad. It can help you analyse yourself and contemplate on your ways of life. Some of the practise that the masses follow may actually teach you the way of living. You may be able to change yourself for the better. Looking at what other do, can help you bring about a positive change in your way of thinking. If you can pick selectively, peer pressure can actually result in a positive change in your way of life.
3. Teenage is that phase of life when are exposed to the world outside. These are the tears when you spend most of your time with your time with your friends. Teenage is the phase of beginning to become independent in life; the years of forming your ideals and principles, the years that shape your personality and the years that introduce you to your own self. As adolescents you often spend most of your daily time with friend and owing to this, you tend to imitate your friends. The people around you are bound to influence you. However, the effect of the influences of the masses is greater during your teen years. Parents have a vital role to play during your teen year’s life. Parents and teachers need to be careful while dealing with teenagers, as they are most susceptible to succumb to peer pressure during these years of their life. Teenage individuals need to be taught to distinguish between the good and the bad, the right and the wrong and should be taught to be thoughtful in life.
4. A strong support from family, an ability to differentiate between the positive and the negative and a skill chose friend from among the peers- this three-pronged strategy is the best way to keep away from negative peer pressure.
2.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer any four of the following questions in 30-40 words each.
(i) How can changing ways of life of our peers affect us?
(ii) What needs courage?
(iii) Name any two factors which can help you gain from peer pressure.
(iv) State any two characteristics of teenage.
(v) Why are teenagers more likely to be affected by peer pressure?
2.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, fill in any two of the following black with appropriate words/phrases:
(i) A negative impact on life can be left by ____________.
(ii) A thoughtful analysis of views of masses will lead to ________________.
(iii) Selective picking can result in ____________.
2.3 Attempt any two of the following. Find out the words that mean the same as under:
(i) Affected (Para 1)
(ii) Difference (Para 2)
(iii) Give in to (Para 3)
English (Comm) - Board Papers