(a)Russell viper and rat snake have different methods to attack prey. The former preys by injecting poison whereas the latter uses a non-chemical method i.e. catches and pushes their prey against the ground.
(b) The Sand Boa produces secretions particularly poisonous to birds. It attacks by first crushing its prey and then as an extra step it also injects its poison into its prey. Though they are classified as non-poisonous but it is completely not true because it uses poison on its prey.
(c) There is a constant tussle between the hunting animal and its prey because while hunting animals try all their techniques to kill their prey efficiently and on the other hand their prey use tricks to avoid being caught they develop immunity to poison like the mongooses. Snakes become more and more poisonous for two major reasons i.e. to avoid becoming prey themselves and to compete with their prey.(d) Mongooses are highly resistant to cobra poison. Also, with their speed and agility, they kill snakes fearlessly.
(e) The writer faces difficulty when he is entertained in the remote parts of India and expresses the need to use venom if possible as it would make meat softer. While travelling in remote parts, the local hospitality often involves leather-tough meat. The writer struggles to chew it until his jaw starts aching. He was left with no choice but to chew because if he spit it out or refused to swallow the hosts would feel offended and while swallowing he felt like a python swallowing a deer down its throat.
2.2 (i) Overpowering (d) prey is a challenge for creatures that do not have limbs.
Among the creatures that do not have limbs, the only choices to overpower their prey include injecting poison, or catching its prey. While some species like python uses their muscle power to crush its prey.
(ii)Poison (c) softens meat.
Poison acts as an extreme meat softener. It breaks down enzymes inside the preys body and makes it easier for the snake to swallow it down.
a. ‘Alternative’ means an option which is same as another.
‘Secretions’ refer to gland secretions which are in liquid form.
‘Specific’ refers to something in particular.
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