Answer :

1.1 (i) (d) 80% (From Paragraph 3, line 3-About 80 per cent of ocean plastic originates on land.)

(ii) (b) 2015 (Paragraph 4, line 1- In 2015, engineer Jenna Jambeck at the University of Georgia and other researchers calculated that at least 8 million tons of plastic trash are swept into the ocean from coasts every year)

(iii) (d) large molecule polymers (Paragraph 5, line 2- There are different types of plastics, but one thing they all have in common is that they’re made of polymers – large molecules made up of repeating units.)

(iv) (b) Plastic bags and soda – can rings (Paragraph 9. Line 1- Sea turtles eat plastic bags and soda-can rings.)

(v) (d) California and Indonesia (Paragraph 10, line 2- Scientists recently examined fish and shell-fish bought at markets in California and Indonesia.)

1.2 (i) Articles like plastic bags, bottles, straws, foam beverage cups are disposed to the sea by winds and waterways which generally cause pollution in the sea.

(ii) Plastic harms wildlife and introduces dangerous chemicals into marine ecosystems — communities of organisms interacting with their surroundings

(iii) Plastics over a long period of time, break down into small fragments which are called microplastics.

(iv) Plastic also tends to absorb harmful chemicals from its surroundings hence, it is compared to a sponge for persistent organic pollutants.

(v) The biggest impacts of plastic pollution on sea life is that Seals, sea turtles, and even whales can become entangled in plastic netting. They can starve to death if the plastic restricts their ability to move or eat.

(vi)Scientists are working towards developing new materials which can be used in place of plastic and are safer for the environment.

1.3 (i) Improperly handled waste material such as plastic bags, bottles, straws, foam beverage cups are disposed to the sea by winds and waterways which generally cause pollution in the sea. Some of it also comes from marine industries such as shipping and fishing.

(ii) Presently, articles made up of plastic such as plastic bags, bottles, straws, foam, etc. have entered into the lives of people all around the world. No industry is devoid from the use of plastic as it is very cheap and durable.

(iii) Plastic doesn't biodegrade or break down naturally. Instead, it just fragments or breaks into tiny pieces over time. These tiny pieces, known as microplastics, can potentially stick around for hundreds or perhaps even thousands of years.

(iv) Scientist Jambeck suggested that for having cleaner and healthier oceans individual actions can make a difference. Disposing of plastic properly for recycling or trash collection can be considered as a key step and simple practices like reusable water bottles, mugs, and bags really cut down on waste.

1.4 (i) Pristine (means clean and fresh as if new; in its original condition that is not spoiled.)

(ii) Durable (means strong and able to withstand damage or pressure.)

(iii) Colleagues

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