Q. 14.1( 16 Votes )
Read the passage
(i). d. pacifism
(ii). d. Role of peace makers
(iii). c. philosophical pacifisms
(iv). b. dog kennel
(v). a. there was no fortification and very few weapons
(i) The war was never treated as an ideal in India. It was only tolerated as unavoidable and inevitable. All attempts were made to check it and control it.
(ii) India has highly developed military organization and in spite of their belief in Pacifism it has developed several techniques of war and imperialism. It has openly justified war as a national policy.
(iii) The doctrine of philosophical pacifism was practiced by ancient Aryans. The great Indian teachers and savants stuck to this doctrine tenaciously, practiced and preached it to the masses and royals.
(iv) Ahimsa is the doctrine of non-violence in thought, speech and action/ it is an act of personal virtue.
(v) The meaning of co-existence with rivals is the right of the rivals to exist, not mainly as enemies but as collaborators in the building of our civilization operation. It also means coming in clash with each other.
(vi) Bhagvad-Gita should not be considered as “A song of the battle” because it considers expedients of conciliation, gift and dissention and denounces war, when all these three expedients were exhausted, then only the fourth was resorted to.
1.3 (i) The seers visualize the unity of life, permeating all beings, animate or inanimate, which ruled out killing and suicidal wars.
(ii) By some, Ashoka was considered as the cause of the downfall of the Mauryas. The fault lies with the weak successors of Ashoka, who could not wield the weapon of non-violence with a skill and efficiency which required the strength of a spiritual giant like Ashoka. They failed due to their subjective weakness. Pacifism itself was no cause of their failure.
(iii) Sri Krishna before resorting to war explored various options like negotiation, conciliation through conference and meditation. This proves that the heart of ancient India was sound and it longed for peace.
(iv) Kautilya who was said to be the maligned militarist and the Machiavelli of India thought that the object of diplomacy was to avoid war.
1.4 (i) enunciated
Enunciated means to say or pronounce clearly.
Fortification means a defensive wall or other reinforcement built to strengthen a place against attack.
Commencement means the starting point of something.
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