Q. 114.2( 17 Votes )

Read the para under the title ‘Erosion’ on page 20 and comment on it.

Answer :

● Erosion is the wearing away of the surface of the Earth due to the action of natural forces, such as wind, water and glacier ice. These particles move from one place to another.


● It is different from weathering. Weathering is the process of breaking down of rocks and dissolving into tiny particles by chemical and physical processes.


● Erosion moves the weathered particles from one place to another through natural agents.


CAUSES OF EROSION :


● Water: The weathered rocks and other particles are carried from one place to another by rainfall and other flowing water to low elevated areas.


● Wind: The movement of air with force is called wind. It usually blows from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area. The weathered rocks move from one place to another due to the wind.


● Ice: Ice forms when the temperature drops. This type of ice sheet erodes mounting surfaces. When it slides down, it also takes away the eroded rocks with it.


● Waves: Waves are the moving ridges in a water body. This movement creates Kinetic energy which is capable of transferring sand particles to different places.


EFFECTS OF EROSION:


● Repeated erosion washes away the topsoil which has the maximum nutrients necessary for the growth of the plant. Thus, there is a reduction in the fertility of the soil.


● Erosion leads to deposition on the roads. this intervenes with the transportation lines. The cost to manage the transport also increases.


● It can cause landslides and damage the buildings, and the residents of that area. The government has to incur a significant cost for the rehabilitation.


● Young plants may not make it to maturity time


● It leads to a loss of fertilisers, pesticides and insecticides.


● It leads to deposition in the drains and thus, disrupting the drainage system


● If these deposits are accumulated near the water bodies. it may damage the water ecosystem.


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