Q. 175.0( 2 Votes )

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Answer :

(i) The Rio Summit was attended by a number of countries, which can be roughly divided into two categories- The rich and developed ‘First World’ countries on one hand and the poorer, less developed ‘Third World’ countries on the other hand. The First World countries pursued a different environmental agenda from the Third world countries. They wanted to address the issues of ozone depletion and global warming. They also wanted every country to participate in the ecological conservation of the countries as well as held every country accountable for it.

The Third World countries wanted to focus on the link between economic development and environmental degradation. They felt that most of the environmental degradation was due to the activities of the First World countries.

(ii) Yes, the issue of global warming has deeply affected the world in the following ways:

The level of ozone layer around the Earth’s atmosphere is continuously declining. Thus,e exposing the Earth to many harmful situations.

The natural forests are being cut down. This has affected the climate, the level of forest produce obtained by humans, a large scale displacement of people and loss of biodiversity.

The water bodies have suffered extreme conditions mainly due to the increasing industrial activities, This has also led to a negative impact on marine life.


(i) Globalisation is a multidimensional concept as it includes all the political, cultural, economic, technological aspects. It is not just a political or economic concept.

(ii) In Globalization, the crucial element is the worldwide interconnectedness. For example, the movement of people from one place to another, mainly in search of a job, and the movement of capital from one place to another.

(iii) The disintegration of USSR had helped in spreading of globalization across the world. This is because USSR favoured the ideology of communism. With its disintegration, this ideology was replaced with capitalism. This further spread with the Second World War. So, globalization spread at a faster pace across the world.

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