Answer :

(a) ‘Those’ is used to refer to the people who spread war. These people want power and can go to any heights to get it. The ones included are politicians, scientists or even army men during war.

(b) The poet has an implied meaning when he says ‘put on clean clothes’. He means to bring about a complete change not only in the outer look but also from the inside as a person. He wants people to keep aside all negativity and attract positivity. He desired a world free from feelings like hatred and jealousy.

(c) There is an irony in the third line because it says ‘victory with no survivors’. This implies that though the war is won no one would be left to celebrate it as everyone will be dead fighting each other.

(d) A person can walk about with ‘their’ brothers without fear only when there is a feeling of harmony and understanding among people. To establish this, its first requirement would be self-introspection which would help in the realisation of own mistakes.


(a) The two important qualities of beauty that are mentioned here are that it is a source of endless joy and the other is that its beauty never fades away with time.

(b)A thing of beauty is a source of joy and has the power to calm a troubled mind as it provides peace and tranquillity and soothes the mind. The Earth would be full of gloom and sadness, without a thing of beauty. It removes the pall of sadness and darkness.

(c) The word ‘bower’ refers to a shady place usually under the trees. It is commonly used by people to enjoy deep, relaxing sleep. It helps us in life by giving fresh oxygen and taking away carbon dioxide keeping us healthy. It also gives us shade in harsh weather be it scorching heat or heavy rains.

(d) A thing of beauty leads to ‘a sleep full of sweet dreams’ by providing peace to the mind and inducing a relaxing sleep full of blissful dreams. A bower provides such a place and a source for re-energising and rejuvenation.

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