Answer :

Let p = (a – 1) and q = (a+1)


As we know that, a2 – b2 = (a – b)(a + b)


pq = a2 + 1


The given expression can be rewritten as:


px2 + pqxy + pq + qy2


px(x + qy) + y(x + qy)


(px + y)(x + qy)


On substituting the value of p and q, we get,


(ax – x + y)(x + ay + y)


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