Subsistence agriculture is one in which the agricultural areas consume all, or nearly so, of the products locally grown. There are two types of Subsistence Agriculture and they are – Primitive Subsistence Agriculture and Intensive Subsistence Agriculture.
Primitive Subsistence Agriculture
• The vegetation is usually cleared by fire, and the ashes add to the fertility of the soil. Shifting cultivation is thus, also called slash and burn agriculture.
• One of the major problems of shifting cultivation is that the cycle of jhum becomes less and less due to the loss of fertility in different parcels.
• It is known in different names in different regions, e.g. Jhuming in Northeastern states of India, Milpa in Central America and Mexico and Ladang in Indonesia and Malaysia.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
• This type of agriculture is largely found in densely populated regions of monsoon Asia.
• There are mainly two types of Intensive subsistence Agriculture and they are Intensive subsistence agriculture dominated by wet paddy cultivation and Intensive subsidence agriculture dominated by crops other than paddy.
• In these types of farming the farmers work with the help of the family labour.
• The usage of machinery is very limited in these types of farming and most labourers are used to farm the agricultural land.
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