Q. 93.6( 10 Votes )

"Print culture cr

Answer :

There are three types of arguments for which the French Revolution has occurred due to the expansion of print culture. They are:

• Print popularized the ideas of the illumination thinkers. Collectively, their writings provided a significant commentary on tradition, superstition and despotism. They argued for the rule of reason rather than custom and demanded that everything is judged through the relevance of reason and rationality. They attacked the consecrated authority of the Church and the dictatorial power of the state, thus eroding the authority of a social order based on tradition.

• The print culture created a new culture of discourse and debate. All values, norms and institutions were re-evaluated and discussed by a public that had become aware of the power of reason and recognized the need to question obtainable ideas and thinking. Within this public culture, new ideas of social revolution came into being.

• By the 1780s there was an expression of literature that mocked the royal family and criticized their morality. In the process, the people started raising questions about the existing social order. Cartoons and comic strips typically suggested that the monarchy remained engrossed only in sensual pleasures while the common people suffered immense hardships.


Pariksha Guru is the novel which is written by Srinivas Das, published in 1882. The title of the novel Pariksha Guru means Master Examiner. It cautioned young men of well-to-do families against the dangerous influences of bad company and consequent loose morals. Pariksha Guru reflects the inner and outer world of the newly budding middle classes. The characters in the novel are caught in the difficulty of adapting to colonized society and at the same time preserving their own cultural identity. The world of colonial modernity seems to be both terrifying and irresistible to the characters. The novel reaches the reader to teach the ‘right way' to live and expects all ‘sensible men' to be worldly-wise and practical, to remain rooted in the values of their own tradition and culture, and to live with dignity and honour. Therefore the Pariksha Guru is considered a landmark in the history of Hindi Novel.

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