Answer :

Print created the possibility of the wide circulation of ideas and introduced a new world of debate and discussion. This can be well understood from the following points:

1. In 1517, Martin Luther wrote ‘Ninety-Five Theses’ which criticised the rituals and practices of the Roman Catholic Church.

2. This led to Protestant Reformation and the permanent division of Christians into Catholics and Protestants.

3. His book was immensely popular and sold nearly 5000 copies within a month.

4. Menocchio, a mill worker, reinterpreted the message of the Bible in a way that enraged the Roman Catholic Church. During the Roman Catholic churches drive to repress heretical ideas, Menocchio was hauled up and finally executed.

5. Also, Muslims used print to check conversions.

6. Hindus used print to read vernacular religious texts.

Thus, the print was used to criticise existing practices and people were persuaded to think differently.


Premchand was famous for his works such as Rangbhoomi and Godan. His novels are filled with powerful characters from all levels of society.

a. He wrote the novel ‘Sewasadan’ which transformed the novels from entertainment to a serious reflection on the lives of the commons and social issues.

b. His novels included characters such as aristocrats, peasants and labourers and women were portrayed as strong individuals.

c. He created a community based on true democratic values through his characters.

d. His visually impaired character-Surdas from his famous Rangbhoomi is from the most oppressed untouchable class of the society.

e. He raised his voice against social issues like child marriage and dowry.

Thus, Premchand created powerful characters that laid the foundation for the transformation of society based on true values.

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