Answer :

(a) Moss belongs to group Bryophyta. Fern belongs to group Pteridophyta and in the same way, spirogyra belongs to group Thallophyta. The thallophytes, the bryophytes and the pteridophytes have naked embryos that are called spores. The reproductive organs of plants in all these three groups are very inconspicuous, and they are therefore called ‘cryptogamae’. Whereas Pinus belongs to group Gymnosperm which has well differentiated reproductive tissues that make seeds. It is called phanerogam.

(b) Octopus is odd one because it belongs to Mollusca whereas sea cucumber, feather star and star fish belong to Echinodermata group.


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