The Hardy-weinberg’s principle is a mathematical equation that can be used to calculate the genetic variation of a population at equilibrium.
Principle: It states that allele frequencies in a population are stable and remain constant from generation to generation.
In this equation, p- frequency of allele A
q- frequency of allele a
p2-frequency of genotype AA (homozygous) individuals in a population
q2- frequency of genotype aa (homozygous) individuals
2pq- frequency of Aa (heterozygous) individuals
also, the sum total of all the allelic frequency is equal to 1.
If the p and q allele frequencies are known, then the frequency of the three genotypes can be calculated using the Hardy-weinberg equation.
This equation can be used to measure the differences in frequencies of observed genotype measured from the frequencies predicted by the equation.
The disturbance in genetic equilibrium results in evolution, thus the presence of any differences indicates the extent of evolutionary change.
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