Answer :

Ocean Current is the general movement of ocean water in mass towards a specific direction. They are caused due to the following factors:

a. heating of ocean water by solar energy: Heating causes the water to expand, hence ocean water is warmer near the equator than the middle latitudes. So flow is normally from east to west.


b. Wind.: this pushes the water to move in its direction.


c. Gravity: This tends to pull the water down to the pile.


d. Coriolis force: The Coriolis force intervenes and causes the water to move to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere.


e. Temperature difference


f. Salinity difference


Based on the factors there are two types of currents:


a. warm Current: Warm-water currents travel out from the equator along the surface, flowing towards the poles to replace the sinking cold water.


b. Cold Current: Cold-water ocean currents occur when the cold water at the poles sinks and slowly moves towards the equator.


Warm currents are:


North Atlantic Current, Gulf Stream, North & South equatorial current, North Pacific current Kuroshio Current, Brazil current, South Atlantic Drift, Agulhas Current, South Indian Current, East Australian Current.


Cold Currents are:


Canary Current,California Current , Beneguela Current, west Australian Current and Peru Current .


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